超現實主義Man Ray 無心插柳的時尚攝影之父
The Reluctant Pioneer of Fashion Photography


而Ann Demeulemeester對Man Ray的喜愛,則不僅是體現在伸展台上,將超現實主義Man Ray等作品轉作印花圖騰,更是在自己家中,加以收藏。在她由柯比意(Le Corbusier)建造的安特衛普寓所,掛著Man Ray紐約時期的現成物「屏障」(Obstruction, 1920),這件完全使用衣架互相吊掛而成的作品,與白牆與玻璃帷幕的簡練美感相得益彰。另外,一向低調的Raf Simons尚在Jil Sander任職時,也於2009年春夏推出以Man Ray名作「黑與白」(Noire et Blanche, 1926)為題的系列,期望從Kiki de Montparnasse雪白面龐與非洲烏檀木雕塑間,色澤、年代與象徵意義上的反差,萃取出合乎Jil Sander極簡美學的Art Deco風情。

Man Ray攝影名作「黑與白」(Noire et Blanche, 1926, 左),與Jil Sander 2009春夏系列(右)。

Man Ray攝影名作「黑與白」(Noire et Blanche, 1926, 左),與Jil Sander 2009春夏系列(右)。

若是Raf Simons的嘗試會被Man Ray譏為畏首畏尾,頑童設計師Jean Charles de Castelbajac在2011年秋冬的致敬之作,則或可博他一笑。除系列機巧地命名為「Woman/Ray」之外,邀請函上印製巨大女性臉龐眼發雷射照死小男人的形象,也反將當年以物化女性為樂的Man Ray一軍。而秀上除了「玻璃淚珠」(Glass Tears, 1932)、「安格爾的小提琴」等作品意象一再重現外,Man Ray以往經常作為主題的眼、耳、嘴、手等身體部位,也被設計師一一剪切作成配飾,玩世不恭的態度與這位達達主義大師顯然相當搭調。此外,在Sonyia Rykiel以超現實主義為師的2012早秋系列,及Giambattista Valli以20世紀初現代藝術為題的2010春夏系列中,設計師也皆將Man Ray列為主要靈感來源之一。

Jean Charles de Castelbajac 2011秋冬系列「Woman/Ray」,反將Man Ray一軍。

Jean Charles de Castelbajac 2011秋冬系列「Woman/Ray」,反將Man Ray一軍。

而在2013年,則由新秀設計師接下向大師致敬的棒子。如2010年畢業於中央聖馬丁(Central St. Martins)的瑞典設計師Josefina Larsson,就在她的2013春夏系列中,以黑白皺褶布料,及不經意的不對稱裁剪,試圖重現Man Ray攝影作品中的質感,與其中的潛意識世界;而2013秋冬季在紐約展演的印度裔設計師Bibhu Mohapatra,則從Kiki de Montparnasse與Lee Miller這兩位Man Ray生命中最重要的女人與繆思著手,試圖捕捉她們在相紙中優雅而誘惑的舉手投足。不論這些初生之犢的嘗試是否成功,唯一可以確定的是,Man Ray的藝術與攝影留給時尚的遺產,必會繼續傳承下去,而不隨時間流逝而稍減。««

Josefina Larsson 2013春夏系列中,仿若「修復維納斯」的綑綁手法(左);Bibhu Mohapatra 2013秋冬系列(右)。

Josefina Larsson 2013春夏系列中,仿若「修復維納斯」的綑綁手法(左);Bibhu Mohapatra 2013秋冬系列(右)。

»»Dadaist and surrealist pioneer Man Ray, while highly talented in diverse fields, is perhaps best remembered for his ground breaking photography works. While the artist himself despised both the clothing industry and commercial art, he has achieved incredible success in the realms of fashion, where the two intersect.

Born Emmanuel Radnitzky in a Jewish family in Philadelphia, the young Man Ray has by all means tried to escape his humble upbringings, which included the change of his name at the age of 22, as well as the decision to move to Paris in pursuit of Dadaist art in 1921.

Introduced by Dada movement leader Marcel Duchamp to the Parisian art circle, Man Ray soon became well regarded with his readymade objects, including the well known Gift (1921) and Riddle (1921). Meanwhile, the young artist was still unable to earn a living with his artwork alone, and was forced to begin his endeavor in fashion photography that same year shooting the work of Paul Poiret.

After a few years of polishing his technique, Man Ray’s stark, still and yet whimsical style has attracted the attention of fashion houses and magazines alike. From 1922 to 1938, he shot a wide range of work for some of the leading designers of the 20th century, including Madeline Vionnet, Coco Chanel and the infamous Elsa Schiaparell.

It was Man Ray’s relentless pursuit of the new that earned him a place in leading publications such as Vogue, Bazaar and Vanity Fair. The juxtaposition of avant-garde artworks and fashionable clothing, has for the first time revealed the marketability of avant-garde art.

While building a new aesthetic, Man Ray also developed new techniques of photography, which included photograms, which Man Ray himself referred to as “rayographs”, as well as Solarization, which came as a result of accidentally turning on the lights in a darkroom.

On top of it all, it was Man Ray’s sharp insight into the essence of fashion that gave his work its pioneering quality. In various photography work, Man Ray succeeded to objectify the female body, and thereby commercializing it through clever juxtaposition, as perfected in his masterpiece “Ingres’ Violin” and “La Femme”.

While Man Ray permanently left fashion in 1938, his legacy was passed on by a new generation of fashion photographer such as Richard Avedon, Irving Penn and most of all, Guy Bourdin, who started his career in the 50s as Man Ray’s protégé.

Even today, when his second generation have all left the world, Man Ray’s influence is still as strongly felt as ever. In the Spring 2008 season, Dutch duo Viktor and Rolf based an entire collection on the photography of Man Ray, especially Ingres’ Violin.

When Raf Simons still held the realm at Sil Sander in Spring 2009, the much celebrated Belgian designer also took notes from Man Ray’s Noire et Blance (1926) in order to find the right balance between modernism and the flamboyance of 30s flapper style.

Meanwhile, Jean Charles de Castelbajac used a much bolder approach in Fall 2011. The pun filled “Woman/Ray” collection literally shredded every piece of Man Ray reference and rearranged them on the runway, which probably would have made Man Ray roll in his grave.

The more recent seasons have seen more young designers saluting Man Ray, as St. Martins graduate Josefina Larsson and New York based Indian designer Bibhu Mohapatra all took cues from the late master, further invigorating his legacy.««

 

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