Pierre Cardin過度授權 贏裡子失面子
Pierre Cardin Authorization Crisis


Pierre Cardin今年在巴黎男裝周辦秀,以百套男女裝證明自己設計寶刀未老。

Pierre Cardin今年在巴黎男裝周辦秀,以百套男女裝證明自己設計寶刀未老。

»»高齡90歲的Pierre Cardin似乎沒有淡出時尚界的念頭,日前他才在巴黎2013春夏男裝周上大出風頭,以159套的驚人數量,讓年輕一輩的時尚迷回顧他設計生涯的精彩作品,更慎重地參加Dior 2012秋冬高級訂製服發表會,與當今重要時尚人士同列出席。不過對很多不熟服裝史的外行人來說,這品牌似乎與高級時裝有些距離,反倒可以在杯碗瓢盆等居家生活用品,甚至是時下最新潮的平板電腦上,看到「Pierre Cardin」的蹤跡。這過度授權導致侵蝕品牌形象之舉,可能是當初Pierre Cardin本人未曾料想到的。在50年代以「氣泡裝」驚豔時尚圈的Pierre Cardin,以塑膠、尼龍、金屬片等材質呈現超現代感,前衛的設計在當時蔚為話題,爾後推出的「太空人裝」和「中性迷你裙裝」,更迅速擄獲不少女人的心,成為炙手可熱的設計師,創新的設計為當時注入許多新意。

現今最夯的平板電腦Pierre Cardin怎麼可能缺席。¬

現今最夯的平板電腦Pierre Cardin怎麼可能缺席。¬

1959年Pierre Cardin首開先河推出高級成衣,將時尚帶給大眾,當時他氣勢如日中天,嗅覺敏銳的商人聞到此波商機,便紛紛與高級時尚品牌合作授權,因為有了設計師名號的商品,就等於銷售保證。60到80年代,高級時尚的品牌授權模式蔚為風潮,許多品牌皆因此嚐到甜頭,如1984年,以服裝起家的Christian Dior,女裝和皮草部門竟然只佔公司業績的1.5%,可見品牌授權背後的商業利益有多麼驚人。

Pierre Cardin在60年代就造型前衛,廣告也有普普藝術的味道。

Pierre Cardin在60年代就造型前衛,廣告也有普普藝術的味道。

但所謂「成也蕭何、敗也蕭何」,Pierre Cardin授權失控,據<WWD> 在1982年統計,Pierre Cardin在當時已有540件授權商品,營業額高達20億美元,不過金錢使人迷失,Pierre Cardin大量授權商標,卻無暇掌控品質和販售通路,授權商品品質良莠不齊、販售通路隨處可及,品牌形象使消費者混淆,顧客不願再花大把鈔票買品牌高級時裝的帳,且他「外務太多」除服裝事業外,他還經營餐廳、設計家具、改造法國舊劇場為「卡登藝術空間」(Pierre Cardin L‘Espace),內部附設劇院、餐廳、藝廊和音樂廳,曾引領流行時尚的Pieere Cardin服裝王國影響不再,實在令人感到惋惜。

80年代女性權力套裝當道,Pieere Cardin在背後「搞花樣」。

80年代女性權力套裝當道,Pieere Cardin在背後「搞花樣」。

不只Pierre Cardin,Yves Saint Laurent也曾差點因商業授權,毀掉辛苦建立的高級形象。70年代開始,Yves Saint Laurent展開授權,大量生產香水、彩妝、飾品配件等,情形一度失控危在旦夕,還好90年代起精品併購風潮雲起,Yves Saint Laurent在2001年被PPR集團收購後,設計總監Tom Ford砸重金買回品牌授權,Yves Saint Laurent才逐漸步回正軌,成為現今高級時尚的一線品牌。

縱使大眾對Pierre Cardin「出賣自己」的評價不一,不過他在2011年11月面對BBC專訪時,倒是不以為意的說:「雖然大家認為我降低了Pierre Cardin的格調,不過我很清楚每種商品的成本是多少,我一點也不在意,我才是真正將時尚帶給大眾的設計師」。

Pierre Cardin男生西裝肩線設計像極了蝙蝠俠。

Pierre Cardin男生西裝肩線設計像極了蝙蝠俠。

Pierre Cardin總是洞燭商業先機,繼品牌授權大發利市後,現今中國市場當道,各品牌無不擠破頭搶灘中國,不過早在30年前,他便已在中國舉辦時裝發表,1983年在北京開設馬克西姆餐廳,也屢次在中國舉辦大型時尚秀,更時有所聞中國企業爭先收購Pierre Cardin品牌,且Pierre Cardin老先生已年近九旬,近年也開始有意願出拋售品牌的傳聞,如果成功易主,有人繼承衣缽,也算是替為Pierre Cardin畫下完美句點。但觀察今年復出2013春夏時裝周的跡象,應該距離轉讓品牌還有一段時日。««

»»In the recent battlefield of tablet PCs, we have the iPad, Google, Kindle…and now Pierre Cardin. This might not come as a surprise to many, as his name is now printed on every possible product, as he frittered his name as a leading couturier away with rampant over-authorization.

In the 60’s, Pierre Cardin’s name was synonymous with cutting edge couture. His futuristic body suit and mini-skirts made of latex, nylon and metal sheets captured the forward going zeitgeist perfectly. His introduction of prêt-à-porter also opened the era of mass fashion, making him a household name at the time. The 60’s was also a time when many luxury brands realized the value of their name, and not their product. It was estimated that Christian Dior, the celebrated couture house, only generates 1.5% of its turnover from its core business, the rest all goes to licensing.

Following this trait, Pierre Cardin rapidly expanded its range of products, as in 1982, according to WWD, Cardin had over 540 licensed products generating US$2bn per annum, ranging from accessories to restaurants, furniture and galleries. Things started to go downhill from that point, as the lack of quality control and the wide availability gradually eroded the image of the couture house.

A less well known example of over-licensing is Yves Saint Laurent, who started going into perfume, cosmetics and accessories in the 70’s, which almost led him to the same doomed fate. Thanks to the merger with PPR and subsequent buy-back initiated by creative director Tom Ford, the brand gradually re-established itself as a leading luxury brand.

Pierre Cardin himself did not seem too upset by the downfall of his brand, as he has already found his new goldmine in emerging economies. Since his first fashion show in China in the 80s, Cardin has built up a following, which led to quite a few acquisition offers in recent years. If a deal could be done, we should not be surprised to see the resurgence of Pierre Cardin Haute Couture.««

推到Facebook臉書!把這篇文章貼到twitter分享到微博!手機版網站